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In recent years, despite the steady decline in the population, the number of economically active people has increased, while the number of the unemployed has also fallen, so the labor reserve number of inactive is following a declining trend. Five of them pass through Hungary, such as Corridor IV. In our opinion, however, the degree of fit is not optimal, only in the current labor market situation have companies been forced to lower their expectations of employees. Rural Development Conference Literature A. In I inspected the condition 1.0 the mounds in the County again, and I established that in agisoft photoscan professional 1.4.0 build 5650 free download 3 years orofessional had passed cultivation ceased in the case an additional 3 mounds, thus the number where agixoft had been abandoned grew to Posted by george lefler on May 24th, According to the Hungarian statistics the agriculture could become one of the leading sector for the rural regions, as it 9 free instructions elements photoshop download adobe less investment and can rely on old traditions.
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Posted by DennisPew on Jan 7th, Posted by DennisPew on Jan 8th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 8th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 9th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 10th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 11th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 16th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 17th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 18th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 19th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 21st, Posted by Jameslobia on Jan 25th, Posted by Jameslobia on Jan 26th, Posted by BristDox on Jan 26th, Posted by Jameslobia on Jan 27th, Posted by BristDox on Jan 27th, Posted by BristDox on Jan 28th, Posted by BristDox on Jan 29th, Posted by BristDox on Jan 30th, Posted by BristDox on Jan 31st, Posted by Jameslobia on Jan 31st, Posted by Jameslobia on Feb 1st, Posted by BristDox on Feb 2nd, Posted by BristDox on Feb 3rd, We hope that our conference will continue to provide a forum for exploring and resolving the problems of the Central and Eastern European countryside.
People who do not know how to work on a computer are significantly restricted in their work and can be considered illiterate today. During school, all students go through some form of teaching about Information technologies IT and working on computers. At all Colleges, computers are used as a standard tool of teaching and it is normal that students know how to work on them. Information and communication technologies ICT have evolved over the last 15 years and have become accessible to all.
A large proportion of the population encountered computers in their middle years and adoption of a new skill is a great challenge. Company employees could not avoid computer literacy, but people in rural areas on their farms continued to resist new technologies for much longer. Research and analysis of official statistics should indicate the progress and current state of computer literacy and what skills the population possesses.
Age and gender structure, income, infrastructure, etc. Possession of IT skills implies that there are technical prerequisites such as owning a computer or tablet , having a high-speed Internet connection, and possesses knowledge to working on a computer.
Technology is advancing so rapidly that it is thought that today’s elementary school students will work in jobs that do not exist today. Some studies Essays, UK show that education in rural areas is at a lower level caused by low socio- economic factor, lack of facilities and resources, less qualified teachers etc.
The number of graduate students from rural areas is lower than those in cities. Research on the current state of IT skills helps authorityes to come up with strategies for how to improve this problem in those areas Vanja Erceg at all.
Material and methods The collected data were analyzed as indicators of the level of technical equipment, ie. Data from statistical organizations Eurostat, National Bureau of Statistics, etc.
Rural Development Conference Results If we analyze the connection speed then it can be concluded that the difference between 10 years ago and now has decreased significantly. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. The Internet is mainly used for participating in social networks Figure 4. Rural areas have lower percentages in both of these categories Figure 6 and Figure 7. Figure 5. Households with computer in Serbia Figure 6. Serbia Households with Computer by Area Figure 7.
Serbia Households, Internet connection, Area The monthly income directly affects the possession of a computer Figure 8 and internet connection Figure 9. Rural Development Conference Figure 8. Serbia Households with Computer-Sallary Figure 9. Serbia Households, Internet connection-Sallary In all regions, men are more computer literate than women Figure 10 and women in urban areas are more computer literate than those in rural areas Figure Figure Young people are the most active and literate and use computers daily ages , It is devastating that Case Study Internet of Things IoT represents most often wirelessly the connection of objects, devices and other things with embedded electronics, software, sensors, actuators, all for the purpose of data exchange and device management.
Single board computer, the size of a credit card, sets the basics for communicating the computer with the environment in a very simple way. Two workshops were organized to check if the IoT was interesting in rural areas. Two projects were selected, the control of temperature and humidity of the meat when drying the meat and the managing irrigation system. Rural Development Conference valves Figure 12 and 13 and total cost is less than euros.
Projects have shown that curiosity and a desire for knowledge exist and workshops are highly attended. Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Figure Computer ownership and Internet access are directly related to household income as well as place of residence lower incomes and rural areas have fewer computers. More than a half of the user computer used to access social networks, download movies and games, a lot less for electronic banking, shopping and payment over the Internet. Men are more computer literate than women and women in the city are more computer literate than those in the rural area.
This difference remains when comparing men and women with the same educational level. Summary ICTs are evolving so fast that older generations have to make great efforts to accept it.
The first computer was made 75 years ago, became available to individuals 40 years ago, and nowadays, almost every household owned at least one in the home.
The Internet has been in use for about 30 years and that is the first choice when we are looking for something, when we are learning, when we are communicating with others. A person who does not possess ICT skills is considered semi-literate.
This paper analyzes the technical prerequisites in the neighboring countries of Serbia in the ICT field. ICT skills by age, gender, education and place of residence were also analyzed for Serbia.
The results showed that the highest ICT skills are possessed by a man living in the city, with higher education, up to 40 years old.
At least ICT skills are available to women with lower education, over 50 years of age and residence in rural areas. November They are also the carriers of scenery, geological and paleo-ecological values. The mounds are valuable from a geological aspect as well. They contribute to the detailed examination of the soils that were buried in the past and those that have been formed in past millennia Alexandrovskiy , Khoklova et al. The research mostly involved the chronological classification of the mounds, as well as the lifestyles of Copper Age and early Bronze Age populations Ecsedy The agricultural disturbance of mound bodies ploughing, removal is the most damaging process from the aspect of their survival.
I performed the research year after year by area surveys. The changes that occurred in the land use of the mounds as a result of the Decree are shown in Table 1. At the beginning of the study the farmers disturbed the area of 98 mounds, by this number was reduced to 8. After the introduction of the sanctioning system some cultivated mounds still remained, the primary reasons for this were problems related to undivided, shared ownership land areas, and the characteristics of the selection viewpoint system of the subsidy payout agency.
In I inspected the condition of the mounds in the County again, and I established that in the 3 years that had passed cultivation ceased in the case an additional 3 mounds, thus the number where cultivation had been abandoned grew to Material and methods In my present study I analyze how the condition of the Cumanian mounds included in the Decree has changed during the years that have passed since my doctoral thesis research, also considering the results of my inspections.
In summary, I was searching for an answer to the question how well the Decree serving for the protection of the mounds is functioning nowadays. I performed this study by area surveys in the autumn of and in January The compilation of representative samples occurred with a random number generator, by means of the program Random Number Generator Pro 1.
By using the generator I selected the serial numbers of the mounds included in the sample, and the sample was completed based on the unique identifiers assigned to those. In the case of the 5 mounds registered as cultivated, I performed a complete study. In recent years, the works related to the land registration of the mounds in the County have also started. Rural Development Conference Results Of the mounds registered as abandoned during my previous studies and , based on the selection, area surveys were conducted in the case of 18 mounds in , the results of which are shown in Table 2.
The condition of earlier given up registered of pieces kurgan 1 number, 2 generated number, 3 kurgans identification number, 4 name of the kurgans, 5 status of the kurgans It is shown that none of the previously abandoned mounds have been reintroduced into cultivation by the affected farmers. The results of the area surveys of the mounds that were still registered as disturbed in are shown on Table 3. The condition of earlier given up registered of 5 pieces kurgan in 1 number, 2 kurgans identification number, 4 name of the kurgans, 5 status of the kurgan An important step of preserving our valuable landscape elements such as the kurgans mounds is to have them recorded into the official public register.
The first recommendations of modern-day mound protection policies also mention registration as one of the first steps. Values recorded and contained in the land registers may cause some restriction concerning real estate sales as well as increases property value.
It indeed increases as its normal real value is also registered therefore its existence becomes officially proved by the registers as well. However, compensation aids related to them have become even more popular and wide-spread.
Today, it is taken as an advantage if an area is labelled as a special protection area. Mounds as landscape elements are considered as items for which compensation aids can be claimed since they are defined as ecological focus areas by CAP budget cycle.
For that reason, whoever farmer owns any mounds or other landscape elements on his property, no further areas of land are needed to be excluded from production, the areas are even eligible items to be claimed for normative aid. The results show that the 5 mounds previously registered as cultivated were still in disturbed condition in With this a long awaited and the earliest declared protection measure has been implemented.
The sketches of Cumanian mounds entered into the land registry are shown in Figure 1. Rural Development Conference Figure 1. Rural Development Conference Figure 3. In summary, it can be concluded that the measures taken and the processes ongoing in the present point in the right direction from the aspect of Cumanian mound preservation. An important element of long-term sustainment is to have landscape elements recorded and contained in land registers.
Summary In my present research I have, after three years, examined the state of the county mounds via field-walking in search of changes. The county government office has begun the entry of these mounds as landscape elements into the land registry. On the whole, we can determine that the present measures and processes will guarantee that the mounds will be preserved for posterity.
This registering methods are absolutely advantage in other measures of nature conservation. Rural Development Conference Literature A. Barczi — K. Alexandrovskiy, A. Catena, Vol. Raczky Archaeolingua 15, Budapest, , p. Ecsedy I. Geoderma, : Civil Szemle, XII. Sudnik, B. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, Vol. In: Ecsedy, I. Duties related to agricultural supports were delegated to the sphere of competences for government offices as a consequence of restructuring the institutional background of the agricultural support system on 1st January The bodies carrying out delegated duties of a payment agency, namely the Departments of Agriculture and Rural Development operate in each county as well as in the capital as one of the departments of the government offices.
In its operation, the principle of open office has always been considered as an objective from the beginning, through which it strives for creating a high-quality relationship with the clients, realising a cooperation providing aid in support procedures thus acts accordingly. Providing several factors simultaneously contributes to effectively achieve the aim in this case. Of office working methods, one of the factors of successfully drawing down supports is a tool also helping the openness of public administration, namely to enhance clients acquiring information in a way that is shall be applied along with professionalism, plainness and collaboration.
To realise professionalism, it is needed to continuously update the related knowledge. Plainness is also an important element of information flow. For them, the lack of professional language is a failure in performing duties thus might as well cause difficulties when drawing down supports and funds.
Rural Development Conference practice, through which the department staff keeps plain and simple solutions, and comprehensibility in mind when communicating with clients. The government office has created a separate e-mail address for its agricultural department to receive enquiries in an electronic way, via e-mails from clients, and the head of the department provided guarantee of responding the questions within 24 hours.
According to feedback coming from our clients, a further preferred working method of the government office as regards its agricultural department is that it operates the telephone helpdesk service in a call-back system.
That was reasoned by several individual cases that could not be solved effectively and rapidly at the client service dealing with general and mass cases, however the quantity of average client service tasks on annual level did not make it necessary to add an extra staff member into the client service. Enquiries received periodically and in a rather hectic way mostly connected to periods of submitting claims or performing payments required constantly changing resources that could be adapted to different daily levels therefore we introduced a call-back system with the assistance of our staff members.
Workload was thus reduced at the client service on the one hand, while instead of an indirect contact, a direct one was established between a staff member and a client on the other hand, due to which questions to be clarified decreased following discussions on the phone.
It is important to mention that call-back is with time guarantee, the client is called back within a day as a main rule, in special cases on a date agreed with the client. Within the forum, the agricultural department presents important up-to-date lectures as regards its all spheres of activity in a different administration district per month.
Such events also achieve distinct aims in accordance with the principle of open office: they help a lot for clients to get convinced that government office leaders can be contacted directly and are helpful, and that level of direct human relations between the clientele and the office is extremely important.
It is significant to highlight that the efficiency of investments supported by the Rural Development Programme is of key importance in our county. The termination of particular manufacturing capacities caused crisis for the whole branch. No structural change has emerged in animal breeding; pig, dairy cattle and poultry are typically bred according to the traditional way of farming Kelle V.
Rural Development Conference key importance in the everyday work of the agricultural field. The frames of such relationships are declared in the form of cooperation agreements. Duties defined in such a way are accomplished very smoothly due to good relations having strong bases and mutual cooperation, and clients are in the focus of such agreements.
Anybody can register in this system and be included in its directory thus receiving weekly messages on every important deadline connected to the agricultural field, changing of laws, all useful information in its completeness are shared.
Material and methods The research started with studying and processing the available literature. We have examined the efficiency of working methods at the department with analysing two sets of data, on the one hand the most important indicators showing the efficiency of the drawdown of funds, namely the grant amounts claimed for and paid have been analysed, on the other hand we have studied the response time spent on client enquiries received electronically.
The method used was analysing and evaluating the data. Data was analysed with general methods applied for making analyses comparison, percentage comparison. The period examined was the year and the first half of , all the grant amounts claimed for and paid within that period for implementing any investment supported by the Rural Development Programme were examined.
For the study, the experiences of work and knowledge acquired at the payment agency — as well as its legal successor — have been used. When examining data for the first half of , it is obvious that approximately two thirds of the number of claims for have already been submitted by 30 th June In ratio examination furthermore, it can be said that payment was also higher considering that only half-year data are available in and cases in progress can relatively distort the results of the analysis because data can be seen in the claim, however payment was only following 30th June.
Besides data of payments, another sensitive field has also been examined connected to the Rural Development Programme, namely to what extent the hour response guarantee for client enquiries received electronically via e-mail has been realised.
Rural Development Conference In , our department received e-mail enquiries. Conclusions Payments performed in the Rural Development Programme for and the first half of have been examined with statistical analyses. The examination gave us an interesting picture in the sense that for the claims submitted in contained nearly similar amounts as it has been experienced in the claims submitted in the first half of It is caused by the fact that for which actions are applied in the largest number and amount within the Rural Development Programme, e.
It is important to note that it is not mechanised but colleagues in fact deal with each enquiry and if we are not entitled to give substantive response on county level due to the lack of scope, we immediately manage forwarding the enquiry to the relevant body having the right scope.
To realise that, it requires several further professional discussions with the payment agency and a stronger control on managerial level as time factor connected to responses is regarded. Summary Based on the presented working methods applied by the government office and the examinations of their impacts, strengthening the principles of open office and competent authority will increase client satisfaction. Cooperation with other bodies will confirm the strengthening of common aims thus effectively contribute to improve client satisfaction and successful way of the drawdown of funds.
Rural Development Conference also expected to see the human side of their cases. An office will be legitimate and trustworthy if its clientele knows they can count on them, their professionals are prepared, rapid and correct. The aim of our working methods is that our clients know they can count on us and help effective drawdown of supports with several tools and ways. Kelle V.
This is just one example that graphically illustrates how the use of drones in plant protection has started to become an essential part in precision agriculture. Therefore, it is increasingly pressing that legislation create the terms of legitimate use of drones as plant protection machines. The present study aims to point out by examining the current legal framework what the standards are of the use of a drone as plant protection machine, furthermore what issues are yet necessary to be clarified and regulated so that producers may legally use drones in agriculture.
Literature Review 1. With this in mind it evaluates UAS operations from a risk-management aspect. In light of this, three operation categories are defined aligned to risk levels and other criteria. During the transitional period where certification systems are not yet in place, Member States may accept other evidence of sufficient knowledge; d the enterprise responsible for providing aerial spray applications shall be certified by a competent authority for authorising equipment and aircraft for aerial application of pesticides; … 4.
The company responsible for production and distribution is obliged to declare to the Agricultural Machine Institute of the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre hereinafter: Institute that the plant protection machinery meet the marketing requirements specified in this regulation.
Agricultural aircraft: a closed-cabin aircraft serving agricultural aviation with corresponding airworthiness certificate. Aerial spraying: any form of application of plant protection products from aircraft. Substances and methods References to legislation quoted in the previous chapter may have seemed lengthy and dry to the reader.
However, it should be noted that this legislative outlook only concerned main principles. Detailed rules covering the topic are much more extensive and comprehensive with particularities. We need to start examining the issue of using drones for plant protection purposes — following the logic to legislative outlook — from a far-reaching perspective.
As one could read, the regulation categorises operations carried out by drones UAS into 3 categories as a result of a risk-based approach. In this category it is criterion that only such operations may be carried out that do not involve the unmanned aerial vehicle transporting dangerous goods and it may not discharge and substances.
This also involves that the operator must obtain official authorisation and must make a VKM declaration prior to the operation. According to its quoted provision for the use of Hungarian airspace — which includes the use of drones as well — air space must be requested on a case-by-case basis and prior authorisation shall be required. That is, according to the regulations in force, drones can only be taken into Hungarian air space — even for agricultural purposes — subject to an ad hoc airspace permit.
It is assumed that by the EU legislation is expected to completely enter into force and the Hungarian legislation will phase out. Approaching the regulation of the use of drones for discharging plant protection products, in relation to legislation one must get back to the EU level. According to the Directive aerial spraying is prohibited in the Member States. However, the regulation grants exemptions from the prohibition under certain conditions.
At this point it is worth mentioning that both the rule and the exceptions – which also appear in domestic legislation — are thought-provoking with regards to how plant protection treatment by the means of drones is assessed. The first and perhaps most important question is whether the application of plant protection products by drones is regarded as aerial spraying or considered ground handling. Having read the exceptions further dilemmas are formulated.
Pesticides used for treatments must be authorised for the purposes of aerial spraying. Accordingly, some pesticides are already approved for aerial spraying, but it is questionable that is shall be deemed approved for drone air discharge, or a new licensing procedure must be initiated.
To continue with further questions is the person in charge of the drone used for plant protection product application required to have a license, and if so, what kind.
Furthermore, with regards to the drone is the type rating procedure to be conducted and what authorisation is issued for distribution and operation. Further analysis of the quoted references on legislation is in line with the aforementioned questions. The current domestic regulations on plant protection machines and aerial spraying also illustrate the questions that future legislation must address in order to use drones as plant protection machinery.
If a drone is used to discharge plant protection products, it will be regarded as a plant protection machine. In theory, in the case of drones type rating procedures must be carried out, they shall not be placed on the market without.
It should be underlined that NFC law states that the official supervision of food chain also covers the trading and operation of plant protection machinery. If the competent authority observes infringement in connection with the marketing or operation of drones, it may issue fines. For now, even the crucial question of whether drones used for plant protection product application are regarded as agricultural aircraft is not clear.
This definition taken into consideration, it may be concluded that legislative amendment will be necessary for the use of drones as agricultural aircraft, since drones are not closed-cabin devices. As for the last aspect, the rules on plant protection products must be mentioned.
According to the regulations plant protection products may be used only as authorised, as specified in the license document. Only plant protects products authorised for aerial application may be applied by agricultural aircraft , as specified in the licence document It is therefore clear that for carrying out either aerial or ground spraying by the use of drones, then presumably, under the scope of current regulations, re-licensing of plant protection products will be necessary, or the existing permit documents shall be amended.
Results and conclusions The study followed the logic of first reviewing the regulatory cornerstones of the topic, citing existing EU and domestic legislation. In this round on the one hand it dealt with EU regulations regulating generally executable operations by drones, and then moved on to regulations in force regarding plant protection, plant protection machinery, air spraying and plant protection products.
Subsequently, the study — by analysing the cited legislation references – outlined what issues have already been regulated and what issues are still open and in need of regulation, or amendment to current regulation in force is required so that drones are to be lawfully used as plant protection machinery in agriculture.
On the basis of the above it shall be concluded that EU legislation in general gives a set of rules governing operations that may be carried out by drones. However, the use of drones for the application and discharge of plant protection products is yet unregulated and raises legal, procedural issues that are to be addressed by legislative measures. Rural Development Conference Summary It can be concluded that precision agriculture have a strong interest in the use of drones as plant protection machinery.
Manufacturers are constantly developing, experimenting, and farmers are open to the new device. However, one must admit that emerging issues need to be addressed; legislation in force should be reviewed, and amended as necessary so that drones shall be legally utilized as plant protection machinery. The value of this memory is not only intangible, as the value of a trophy of a capital roebuck, which is also the value of the hunting experience, may be up to EUR To come across antlers of such value as much as possible, deer management must be in place.
Literature Overview and Presentation of Relating Legislation. In Hungary fawns are born from the middle of May to the middle of June,… Bucks shed their antlers and regrow them annually.
The antlers of a buck fawn appear as two bumps at four months old. In November and December few centimetres long pedicels, so called calf antlers are grown that are lost in January, February and genuine antlers begin to grow. The second set of antlers may be tine, spiked, forked or six-pointer. From the point of antler quality the previous ones are undesirable, whereas the six-pointer represents good bloodline.
These antlers are covered in velvet even in June, shredding starts late in November and December. The size of antlers in certain populations culminates at years of age, and keeps the shape for a further years.
The lower part of old deer antlers are thick, the ends are thin. Decline begins after the age of years. At the age of years, the centre of gravity is in the top third part of the antlers, the tines are shorter and blunt. Middle-aged bucks have evenly thick beams; the tines are long and sharp.
Rural Development Conference in mind we have a chance for conscious selection of roe deer. Trophy presentation, evaluation and comparison are part of the Hungarian hunting traditions, but it also appears in other nations at international level.
This was the first Europe-wide famous exhibition where some evaluation formula was used in the judgement of red deer trophy. The Nadler scoring formula was used since and became known all around Europe. In Hungary, in the course of trophy evaluation further data are recorded, such as the age of the buck, the classification of professional manner of killing, antler formulation e. Rural Development Conference The Law No 55 of on game protection, wildlife management and hunting currently in force hereinafter: Vtv.
In order to have more valuable roe bucks population control and selection are required. Therefore the aim of selection is the sparing of these bucks until the age where further antler developing has culminated, but has not started to decline.
Young six point buck in good condition. Rural Development Conference Interestingly, the nominal value of the trophy and the hunt is only determined by the weight of the trophy as exact measurable value, furthermore that demand for special, possibly deformed antler developing bucks have grown lately regardless of the fact that under the law these bucks should be selected as young as possible.
No 73 The persons eligible for hunting are obliged to present to the hunting authorities for trophy evaluation the trophies of red deer, fallow deer, roe deer as well as muflon shot by a hunter with hunting permit at latest within 30 days following the hunting season of trophy game. Paragraph 1 of Regulation Vhr. The Regional Game Management Plan contains the definition of unprofessional killing by game species and by age. Unprofessional killing may be a minor: 1 penalty points, b moderate: 2 penalty points, c severe: 3 penalty points.
Rural Development Conference attention of the eligible to comply with professional practice for the quality protection of big trophy game.
If the eligible does not comply with the contents of the warning, the hunting authority orders weight limit trophy game restrictions in the hunting area — in case of mouflons the number of curls—, the violation of which will result in wildlife management fine.
Limit values of unprofessional killing of roebucks. Recording and Managing Data of Trophy Evaluation Trophy evaluation is carried out by the hunting authorities upon request of the authorised hunter and recorded by the means of a purpose-designed programme.
The results of the trophy evaluation are issued in a certificate. The evaluation sheet contains the measured values, including C. Registered data will be transmitted in to a database. Each trophy is allocated a unique identification number which records the following: Certificate oA—hunting licence number oB—hunting season permit domestic ocounty code of the judging authority ocounty code of the eligible to hunt oyear of hunting ocode of the species otrophy number.
An example of a batch number: BV The programme stores the data in a database, so statistical queries are possible. Furthermore, the complete database is sent to the National Game Management Database, where further queries and aggregation of national statistical data are made.
Parts of the data are public and available in the website of the NGMD. The following queries are available to the hunting authority for the purpose of inspecting the roebuck management of the game farmers of the county in a particular hunting year: oHarvest number, age in annual breakdown, trophy weight in 50 grams.
In the alternative, other statistical data may be extracted; however this requires database management software.
The use of the data These statistics are primarily used by the hunting authorities for the monitoring of roebuck management. Minimising the number of unprofessional killing is the most important, of course, as not only will this result in the deterioration of the population, but will also cause the loss of revenue later on as these developing hopeful young bucks are harvested prematurely.
It is the vital interest of game farmers themselves to detect any problems with management in time. Data showing age ranges serve a more careful management, as several years of prior planning and producing even revenue may only be carried out in the case of an even age range distribution.
Rural Development Conference game farmers even during the year; authorities shall issue them upon request to facilitate professional work. Conclusions The year-on-year data collected allow the results to be recorded, and present the current status of the roebuck population. Trends may be defined based on these data. The impact of hunting activities on the game population may be reviewed ensuring the conditions for sustainable management. The authorities may have control over game farmers protecting the roe deer population from an undesirable overharvesting mismanagement.
Summary This lecture presents a short history of the origin of trophy evaluation and its significance in the currently applied evaluation practice.
It points out how laws are to protect the Hungarian wildlife, narrowly taken the roe buck herd. With this information it shows what options there are for the control of game management, and what feedback it can provide for game farmers. In a relatively small hunting area 4. High quality soil is a natural consequence of intensive farming in the area, which — as common knowledge — is not favourable to small game.
In the idea emerged that in the name of the Hunting Association members and by support of the association smaller or larger strips of agricultural land are bought, which are then afforested and cultivated according to the needs of the game population to improve habitat conditions.
The decision was followed by actions: in 12 years nearly 40 ha land was purchased by the company, in which area in 17 members afforestation and planting favourable for small game took place. The sometimes almost disastrous water shortage was tackled by 18 pipe well installations and water ponds. Food plots of the area were completely renovated and multiplied, 66 new mineral sites were prepared and 30 mobile water holes of litres were purchased.
In addition to their own land, the hunting association leases nearly 20 hectares of land, where they grow crops for the purpose of habitat improvement rather than hunting. To describe our game population we can say that for over 20 years there have been no pheasants reared for hunting purposes released in our hunting areas, hunting is only for wild-born pheasants.
Reared hen pheasants have been released in the area five times; partridges have been release twice, in all cases for the purpose of strengthening the natural population of the area. Within a relatively short period there was a spectacular rise in the quantity of game population and in parallel, in the recovery as well.
In the case of both deer and small game there has been approximately four-fold increase in the annual recovery and this recovery level is now steady. Rural Development Conference damage-causing ones. It is completely natural, that in case of above average stock density of the desired species of game within a short time damage-causing will also appear making everyday life challenging for the wildlife manager.
Armed defence against game damage is not as effective as trapping. It can be stated that sustained high numbers of small game can only be maintained, where professional hunters of the area conduct intensive trapping.
In addition to the continuous improvement of the habitat, the most important factor is the personality, competence, motivation, vocation and diligence of the hunting area manager, the professional hunter. Success is unthinkable without a good ranger; finding a good professional hunter is not easy, and if you manage to find such a colleague, then retention is important.
The hunter association works with professionals with high level of expertise, who receive above average financial and moral recognition. The challenges and development opportunities of the hunting industry In the hunting industry, having reached a relatively high recovery level it is not easy to exceed it year-on-year, it is only possible with disproportionately more work, or even then it does not happen. Let us explore those challenges that are present every year as well as the newly emerging ones: The main task is to provide the hunting area with water supply, as there is neither permanent, nor temporary watercourse, lake, irrigation channel, etc.
This may be resolved by installing water holes and litre watering barrels. The other and bigger challenge is increasing the numbers of nesting sites for small game, which is the most important habitat development task for reproduction. Land lease proposals may be solutions, which may greatly contribute to sustaining the habitat.
The two most damage-causing species are the wild boar and the golden jackal. In the case of both species the harmful effects to wildlife of their appearance in small game areas have not been recognised in many hunting areas. A publication of a national study on the correct application of methodology would provide a solution to this problem. What happened to the former wetland paradise of Biharugra?
Has it been successful to contain the reduction of the population of protected bird and mammal species caused by the overgrowth of wild boars and other damage-causing bird species within and around the territory of the National Park?
Rural Development Conference When will the actual number of these species be accurately assessed? This means that one hunter shot hares in the course of 6 days, a day. In addition, hares did not turn to the corners in the soft snow. Gyula Orosz hunting explorer shot 95 hares using cartridges in the winter of , which is a ratio of ,6.
But cartridges were military ones. A well-managed social hunt has four important components: -impeccable organisation , – hunter fellowship, that is attention without any downside, fun without offending one another – good sport, body training actions, nature delights-nature protection, – fair takedown.
This rank cannot be reversed, the order of importance cannot be changed, because then you will be missing out somewhere. Beside the aforementioned ingredients the rest of the supplies — the equipment, the room and board, and the travel — are just by-things. Its natural range is narrowing down more and more to the South Eastern part of the Great Plains.
The population size and the harvest of the hare show continuous decrease according to the diagrams. It is likely, that the natural population is overestimated. The estimated size of the population was Habitat Transformation For the conservation of the stock habitat development is the most important.
If this does not happen, lasting population growth may not be achieved. The large areas of grasslands or pastures are not favourable to the hare. The lack of continuous areas covered with plant in the large areas in the autumn period has a particularly bad effect black fallow land. In addition, suitable habitats for hares are not bordered by rich lush vegetation.
The situation is even more serious where connection among suitable areas for hares is inappropriate ecological green corridors. Therefore, habitat development for hare is not usually done according to the needs of the species.
Agriculture The intensive spread of agriculture and related adverse effects labour force, speed, cultivation width of machines , as well as large scale tillage farming do not favour the preservation of the hare population.
Extreme Weather Conditions The frequent weather extremes, droughts and overly wet periods, inland inundation, unusually mild winters or late frosts and snow experienced in the past decades all significantly decimate the hare population. Planning and harvest are not carried out according to the estimate of population at the beginning of the hunting season, but are designed based on the estimation of population in February design change as legislation allows is not carried out.
Therefore, response to the changes in the population taking place in the spring- summer seasons of those eligible for hunting is often delayed. One of the reasons for the decrease in certain populations may be due to overharvesting. Predator Control all year round Thinning of predators has an effect on the size of hare population. If litters of the fox population are removed from the areas favourable to hares, the number of hares can be doubled.
In other areas, however, the number of hares does not increase so dramatically. In fact, in areas where the hare population had doubled in the first year due to the efficient thinning of predators, in the second year there is no significant growth. Rural Development Conference primary reason for the drastic drop in the number of hares is not due to the proliferation of predators.
Aim of Population Control The primary goal would be to maintain a stable and recoverable natural population in the long term, which could only be achieved in some areas by maintaining the number of population it is only for a small area, and even just in small territories of it , but in most areas it could only be achieved by increasing the density. Unfortunately, it may be stated that even in the whole of small game areas there is no such natural population size that could allow for long-term harvest for eligible hunters in a self-sustaining manner.
Principles of Population Control If those eligible for hunting would like to harvest hare, it can only be done under strong predator control, and with moderation. This means, that taking into account the current annual yield, the number of hunting and catching days must not threaten the population. In one part of area harvest is possible once a year only. In the management of hare population the introduction and application of adaptable and wise harvest management is necessary.
Capture or Shot Hare Use The means of management is primarily influenced by the existing natural population, its size and location within an area.
The application of a method for estimating the population number estimate by using thermal camera is suggested, but using night time reflectors may also be suitable should be made mandatory at the end of winter and in early spring and autumn, prior to the hunting seasons. Tasks for Habitat Improvement In game management habitat improvement favourable to this species is priority, where land management favourable to the species may be carried out, furthermore continuous water supply in suitable quantity and quality to hare must be provided.
Areas dominated by small-plot farming, sowing structure allowing for diversity proportion of legumes within an area and grasslands, forest patches and forests in alternation provide optimal habitat for the European hare.
Creating hides, ecological green corridors connecting uncultivated edges of land that interweave the whole area. Predator Management Continuous and intensive predator control in the whole of hunting areas is priority, with particular attention to furry pests.
With regards to damage to game in small game areas according to the raptor-life programme , where protected species of raptors prey on substantial amount of hares, wild game farmers should be compensated for the loss of income, which should be spent to maintain the pheasant population.
Of course, if Hungary is mentioned, we do not need to think of that large nature and environment pollution like the ones in China or the USA, however there are destructive activities everywhere, which might be avoided with small-scale care and caution.
In my presentation, I will talk about and depict such most typical phenomena because results cannot and should not only be reached by strictly keeping the rules of law but by a conscious awareness-raising activity.
Relation between human and nature 1. Burning Such an activity can be carried out outdoors exclusively with the permission of the Environment and Fire Protection Authority, it is utterly forbidden to burn resistant vegetation e.
Burning shall be implemented in a way that harm can neither be made to the fauna nor the environmental conditions. It is especially important in the spring season because dry vegetation from the previous year provides shelter and nestling place for numerous protected as well as unprotected birds mammal species. Fire left carelessly aside will often cause irreparable damage.
Fertilisers, treated seeds, unauthorised pesticides Each performance enhancer and chemical is to be used solely according to the prescriptions, in the opposite case the irresponsible ones must reckon with their crime of damaging nature. Paragraph of the Civil Code declares that our environment is a protected legal object, the common value of all. Rodenticides such as Redentin RB are to be mentioned separately, however this drug is unauthorised in the EU because of its chlorophacinone content, it is sometimes vis major marketed and used.
Despite the rigorous rules on land application only flight management, prohibition on the use of rolling disc, etc. Groundworks, harvesting In order to increase productivity and due to a relative lack of labour force, equipment and machines with higher and higher capacities are used even in agriculture. One of the most urgent problems today is the question of water supply due to the unfavourable changes of weather conditions. Water from the large rivers is transported to the place of usage through irrigation systems.
The problem is that for avoiding leakage detection, embankment is provided for watercourses with concrete panels, rubber covers and polyethylene sheeting. It is true for each solution that they become algaefied within a particular period of time thus will be extremely slippery. At or under certain filling levels of river beds, game seeking for water and getting into the canals will irresistibly die.
The status of already existing canals and watercourses should then be reviewed. Ploughing of routes, alleys, boundaries, overexploitation As a result of a profit-oriented attitude becoming dominant recently, forest lanes, alleys, ruderal areas edging agricultural fields are disappearing in larger and larger quantities.
That means a problem because the majority of wildlife lives in these areas, e. A solution would be for instance to assign the payment of subsidies for land cultivation to the size of land used legally. Based on the survey conducted recently by the National Association of Forestry, it can be claimed that half of the woody species planted within the Great Plain Afforestation Programme s is missing.
Illegal dumping disposal of waste The quality of natural habitats still existing is further destroyed by disposing municipal waste illegally there, although such an activity has been considered as a crime since 18 th March Harmful substances can remain in the environment as well as be accumulated in human beings as end consumers significantly even for centuries. Rural Development Conference 7. The topic of stray animals One of the most neuralgic points between animal rights activists and those in charge of responsible nature protection is the question of stray animals.
Both species are cross-compatible with their wild relatives wolf, wild cat that unintentionally contributes to genetically destroy the original species. Game-vehicle collisions Except for motorways where fences are set up to protect vehicles , animals and vehicles can accidentally encounter anywhere at any time. Collision is considered as a road traffic accident therefore police and the territorially competent person in charge of legal hunting must be called to manage any disputes emerging later on, game is not allowed to be taken; it is the property of Hungary if alive, and to be possessed by the person in charge of legal hunting if dead.
The hunting value of dead animals is not compensated while damage caused to the vehicle is managed by the insurance company, in case having a complementary insurance or motor casco insurance. It would be a working solution if complementary insurance related to the current case — as in Slovakia — was integrated — for a higher price — into the compulsory liability insurance. The concept of sustainable development has undergone continuous changes over the years, reaching nowadays to state that the main objective of sustainable development is to find relevant correlations between systems economic, social, technological, environmental Ciolac et al.
The states that allocate the highest costs for education and research are also those whose economy is based on innovative products and which have an accelerated growth rate McGuirk et al. Therefore, education and innovation are the primary factors driving sustainable growth Feher, Literature Education leads to growth and jobs and helps to improve employability, productivity, innovation and competiveness UN, Education is an important objective formulated in the Agenda for Sustainable Development UN, The objectives of the European Union regarding education as a basis for the development of a smart and sustainable economy are set at SDG4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
The targets broaden the scope of education as a global project to encompass outcomes in literacy, numeracy, and wider learning including global citizenship, sustainability and gender equality Unterhalter, Rural Development Conference percentage of GDP, and the number of universities in each analysed country which are among the top universities in Europe.
Statistical indicators are real numbers, which synthesize part of the information contained in a set of values, giving the possibility of global appreciation of the whole series, instead of taking into account each value in the string Rujescu, ; Raicov et al. Minimal and Maximal are indicators that indicate the value range of the value series.
Minimal is the smallest value in the series, and Maximal is the highest. Average is the indicator that shows the central trend of the value series, and usually shows where the data tend to clutter. Often, the values in the series are mostly near the average, and a smaller part of them are located to the left or right of the media.
It is calculated as the ratio of real GDP to the average population of a specific year. The value of the indicator decreases as we move to Eastern European countries.
This directly affects the quality of life, including the level of education in each country, as a premise for sustainable development. Another indicator analysed in the article concerns the financial support of the education system in the countries taken for the study, expressed as a weight that is allocated to education from Gross Domestic Product. The situation is presented in Figure 2, and the values reflect the average of the years Unfortunately, the education system in Romania benefits from the weakest financial support in all analysed countries.
The same situation is found in the case of supporting research and development Figure 3. Hungary allocates 1. This directly affects both the physical conditions for carrying out educational and research activities in school units and the qualitative level of the educational act.
The correlation will also be supported by presenting the number of universities in these countries that are in the European ranking of prestigious universities. Figure 4. The bivariate Pearson Correlation produces a sample correlation coefficient r , which measures the strength and direction of linear relationships between pairs of continuous variables.
So, education is a main factor that determines the evolution and size of Gross Domestic Product, and, finally, the sustainable development of a country. Similarly, as one variable decreases in value, the second variable also decreases in value.
Regarding the Sig 2-Tailed if the value is less than or equal to 0. Pearson correlation coefficients In Figure 6 we show the distribution by country of the universities in the European rankings – top , , , and Thus, United Kingdom has seven universities in the top universities in Europe, Germany, Netherlands and Sweden have three universities in the top , Belgium and Denmark two universities, Finland and Norway each one university in the top , the rest of the countries do not have university in this ranking.
At the level of the first mentioned countries we observe an increased number of universities in the top , and Regarding the ranking of the Romanian universities internationally, this is totally unsatisfactory.
Out of a total of 95 universities 56 state universities and 39 private universities, at the level of Eurostat, , in Romania only two universities are in the European ranking. Rural Development Conference Figure 6. As a result, the education system in a country must be adjusted and supported both financially and through the adoption of viable policy decisions that will ensure increased performance in the educational system.
Conclusions Education is one of the main factors that influence the level of development of a country, both economically, socially and culturally. Continuing education after the basic level is important because people with higher qualifications are more likely to be employed and less likely to face poverty in a knowledge-based economy.
Therefore, investing efficiently in education and training systems that deliver high-quality and up-to-date services lays the foundation for a country’s prosperity.
Also, regarding the Sig 2-Tailed which value is 0. Rural Development Conference our case emphasizes that there is a statistically significant correlations between the two variables.
The share of GDP allocated for education in Romania is only 2. Summary The main objective of the article is to present the level of education in some selected countries, and to explain how education determines a sustainable growth.
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